*/. There is no byproduct. EPS is used for food containers, molded sheets for building insulation, and packing material either as solid blocks formed to accommodate the item being protected or as loose-fill "peanuts" cushioning fragile items inside boxes. Note. Mechanism of Addition Polymerization Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. They are also referred to as macromolecules. } The polymer that is made has this structure: Draw the polymer that results from the polymerization of the following monomers: Stephen Lower, Professor Emeritus (Simon Fraser U.) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A polymerization reaction that forms polymers via individual independent addition reactions. bags for intravenous solutions, pipes, tubing, floor coverings, Non-stick coating for cooking utensils, chemically-resistant specialty plastic parts, Gore-Tex, Stiff, clear, plastic sheets, blocks, tubing, and other shapes. The under­ standing of the relationship between the molecular structure, the kinetics of the process, and the performance characteristics of the product enables us to design better polymers with improved physical properties at reduced cost. Instead, we show the structure of its repeating unit, the part that is repeated many times. These reactions are catalyzed by peroxides or acids. The form this propagating center takes depends on the specific type of addition mechanism. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Very low molecular weights are obtained. Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. The monomers are of the same types; they join up to form a polymer. Addition polymers Alkenes. La polymérisation désigne la réaction chimique ou le procédé par lesquels des petites molécules (par exemple des hydrocarbures de deux à dix atomes de carbone) réagissent entre elles pour former des molécules de masses molaires plus élevées. Ring opening polymerization can occur without the loss of any small molecules. they have double or triple bonds. Other uses include textiles, many electronic appliance casings, CD's, automobile parts, and many others are made from polymers. Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This highly-crystalline fluorocarbon is exceptionally inert to chemicals and solvents. Addition polymerization involves the breaking of double or triple bonds, which are used to link monomers into chains. There are 4 types of addition polymerization reaction: Many polymers can be made by the addition of alkene monomers. Polymerization that occurs through the coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is called addition polymerization. 2.5 Hydrocarbons (k) nature of addition polymerisation and the economic importance of the polymers of alkenes and substituted alkenes; GCSE Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The monomers used are mainly the unsaturated compounds. Injection moulding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest components to entire body panels of cars. by addition polymerization triggered by free radicals or ions or by con­ densation, coupling, ring-opening, or ring-closing reactions. Polystyrene is transparent but rather brittle, and yellows under uv light. People crippled by arthritis or injuries gain freedom of movement and relief from pain. An addition polymer is a polymer that forms by simple linking of monomers without the co-generation of other products. Propylene was first polymerized to a crystalline isotactic polymer by Giulio Natta as well as by the German chemist Karl Rehn in March 1954. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.[1]. Addition Polymerization: Polymerization in which no small molecule is produced in addition to the polymer chain. Poly(ethene) is a polymer made from a very large number of ethene molecules combined together. When a number of monomers undergo self-combination, resulting substance has a molecular mass many times larger than the monomer, the type of polymerization is known as “ Addition polymerization”. 1. Parce que des exemples de polymérisation d'addition sont difficiles à démontrer, ou pour les étudiants de s'expérience, cette expérience est importante soit comme une démonstration des enseignants ou comme une expérience de classe. By itself it is quite rigid and used in construction materials such as pipes, house siding, flooring. Les molécules initiales peuvent être des monomères ou des pré-polymères ; la synthèse conduit à des polymères. they have double or triple bonds. The hip is much like a ball-and-socket joint, and total hip replacements mimic this with a metal ball that fits in a plastic cup. This video is unavailable. In addition polymerization, the monomer molecules bond to each other without the loss of any other atoms. Introduction Monomers has to be two functionality for polymerization. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Emulsion polymerization is an important process for the production of a wide range of polymeric materials, including paints, adhesives and synthetic rubbers. Polyvinyl chloride (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔːraɪd/;[5] colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl[6]; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC was accidentally synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann.[11]. Poly(ethene) or polytheneis one of the most commonly used synthetic polymers. The Physical Object; Pagination: 352p. Voies, types et procédés de polymérisation. Polyvinyl chloride is one of the world's most widely used polymers. It is usually white and made of pre-expanded polystyrene beads. Addition of plasticizers make it soft and flexible for use in upholstery, electrical insulation, shower curtains and waterproof fabrics. Reaction Mechanism 1.Addition or Chain growth 1.1.Radical polymerization 1.2.Cationic polymerization 1.3.Anionic polymerization 2.Condensation or Step growth In both processes, π bonds are converted to σ bonds, and energy is liberated. Statement: J. Bartoň and I. Capek ; translation editor, T. J. Kemp. There is some effort being made to phase out this polymer owing to environmental concerns. The problem of heat transfer is compounded by the highly exothermic nature of free radical addition polymerization. When uncolored, it is translucent but not transparent. Addition Polymerization ; Condensation Polymerization; 3 Addition Polymerization The entire monomer molecule becomes part of the polymer . Watch Queue Queue In the case of this monomer, the double bond opens up and joins to other monomers, just as with ethylene. For example, Polymerization of ethane in the presence of Peroxides. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough, closed-cell foam with a normal density range of 11 to 32 kg/m3. max-width: 100vw; Once molding is completed excess Flash may be removed. Polymerization reactions proceed via either cationic or free‐radical mechanisms. It allows ethene molecules to join together to form a single, It is too difficult to model a complete addition polymer molecule, as it contains many. Transfer molding (BrE moulding) is a manufacturing process where casting material is forced into a mold. [1]:240 After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, moulds are made by a mould-maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminium, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. This happens when there are unsaturated monomers, i.e. Types of Polymerization Reactions Addition Polymerization. These properties — non-adhesion to other materials, non-wetability, and very low coefficient of friction ("slipperyness") — have their origin in the highly electronegative nature of fluorine whose atoms partly shield the carbon chain. [1] Furthermore, unlike injection molding the transfer mold casting material may start the process as a solid. Polymers class 12 Notes Chemistry in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. [1] This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object. table.mt-responsive-table { Anna University Engineering Chemistry-1(CY6151) Notes Unit-1 Polymer Chemistry Addition Polymerisation Free radical mechanism Some polymers can be formed either by addition or condensation reactions. poly (ethene) is the polymer The C=C double bond in ethene is involved in the polymerisation reaction. Addition polymerization definition is - polymerization without formation of a by-product —distinguished from condensation polymerization. By the steady addition of large amounts of monomer, the very fast reaction is kept running. Synthetic polymers are an important part of a hip joint replacement. The artificial ball-and-socket hip joints are made of a special steel (the ball) and plastic (the socket). can be used to make polymers. made when many smaller molecules join together, end to end. Addition polymers are formed by the joining together of many monomers that contain C=C bonds. Whereas, in condensation polymerization (Section 10.5) two different monomers combine with the loss of a small molecule, usually water. Have questions or comments? Addition polymerization: This is the type of polymerization in which the molecules of a similar monomer or different monomer add up together on a large scale to form a polymer. Most polyesters and polyamides (nylon) are in this class of polymers. This happens when there are unsaturated monomers, i.e. Polymerization in the simplest form can be described as a chemical process that results in the formation of polymers. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) Advertisement of the Happy Pan, a Teflon-coated pan from the 1960s. EPS is colloquially called "styrofoam" in the United States and Canada, an incorrectly applied genericization of Dow Chemical's brand of extruded polystyrene. addition polymerization When a number of monomers undergo self-combination, resulting substance has a molecular mass many times larger than the monomer, the type of polymerization is known as “ Addition polymerization”. The reaction is performed within an aqueous environment where the monomer species is maintained within a single phase with a suitable surfactant or emulsifier. ; Number of Pages: 352: ID Numbers; Open Library: OL21138488M: ISBN 10: 013752353X The initiation of the polymerization takes place, depending on … In our study, such a feature was also observed. Polyaddition occurs as a reaction between functional groups on molecules with low degrees of polymerization, such as dimers, trimers and oligomers, to form species of higher molar mass. [CDATA[*/ We have seen one example of addition polymerization in the form of polyethene in alkenes In the polymerisation, the carbon–carbon π bond of the vinyl group is broken and a new carbon–carbon σ bond is formed, attaching to the carbon of another styrene monomer to the chain. This is also called as chain growth polymerization. Commonly extruded materials include metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, modelling clay, and foodstuffs. Typically, compression molding machines open along a vertical axis. Further, it is important to note that addition polymers can be formed through chain polymerization. Some common addition polymers are listed in Tables \(\PageIndex{1}\) and \(\PageIndex{2}\). The empirical formula of addition polymer and the monomer is same. By the steady addition of large amounts of monomer, the very fast reaction is kept running. Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications. After polyethylene, polypropylene is the most profitable plastic with revenues expected to exceed US$145 billion by 2019. An example of a cation‐initiated polymerization is the reaction of ethene with sulfuric acid. Wales. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. These are reactive molecules and are usually linked to each other by covalent bonds. 1. Gives One! addition polymerization - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Une polymérisation en chaîne est une polymérisation dans laquelle la croissance d'une chaîne polymère résulte exclusivement d'une ou plusieurs réactions entre monomère et site réactif de la chaîne polymère, avec régénération du ou des sites réactifs à la fin de chaque étape de croissance. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont, which originally discovered the compound in 1938. Watch Queue Queue. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials mainly including metals (for which the process is called die-casting), glasses, elastomers, confections, and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. These monomers add together to form a long chain to form a product with spe… In 1941, Dow Chemical invented a Styrofoam process. In addition polymerization, the monomers add to one another in such a way that the polymer contains all the atoms of the starting monomers. table-layout: auto; I.e. nCH 2 = CH 2 → − (CH 2CH 2)n − WJEC Chemistry. As with all polymerizations, chains having a range of molecular weights are produced, and this range can be altered by controlling the pressure and temperature of the process. /*Phil Dawson Career Earnings, Tdam Balanced Index Fund, Paragon Infusion Center Dallas, Restaurants In Rochelle, Il, Adak Weather Noaa, Mariah Linney And Madison Bailey, " />
addition polymerization notes

addition polymerization notes

0

J. Chem. Molecules of ethene can polymerize with each other under the right conditions to form the polymer called polyethylene. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. Addition polymers are formed by the joining up of many small molecules called monomers. In each step length of chain increases. Equations use repeating units to model addition polymerisation reactions. 12 hours ago Delete Reply Block. Polymers are generally formed by the addition of a network of structural units or small molecules called monomers. Metal bars and tubes are also often drawn. Unit 2: ENERGY, RATE AND CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS. The problem of heat transfer is compounded by the highly exothermic nature of free radical addition polymerization. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Modelling addition polymers It is too difficult to model a complete addition polymer molecule, as it contains many atoms . Notes Full Name. When we keep adding monomers to obtain a large chain, such a process is also called as the chain growth polymerization. Polypropylene is used alone or as a copolymer, usually with with ethylene. The letter, Crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes - AQA, Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). [ "article:topic", "addition polymer", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbyncsa", "transcluded:yes", "source-chem-152198" ], 10.2: Polyethylene - From the Battle of Britain to Bread Bags, Polytetrafluorehtylene (PTFE): The Nonstick Coating, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org, plastic bags, bottles, toys, electrical insulation, carpeting, bottles, luggage, exercise clothing. Equations use repeating units to model addition polymerisation reactions. This limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, and multiple stages are usually needed. The polymerization is obtained with a broad molecular weight distribution due to the high viscosity and lack of good heat transfer. In addition polymerization all of the atoms of the monomer molecules become part of the polymer; in condensation polymerization some of the atoms of the monomer are split off in the reaction as water, alcohol, ammonia, or carbon dioxide, and so on. Polystyrene results when styrene monomers interconnect. The products of extrusion are generally called "extrudates". 1. Addition polymers from alkene monomers or substituted alkene monomers are the biggest groups of polymers in this class. ), Libretext: The Basics of GOB Chemistry (Ball et al. /*]]>*/. There is no byproduct. EPS is used for food containers, molded sheets for building insulation, and packing material either as solid blocks formed to accommodate the item being protected or as loose-fill "peanuts" cushioning fragile items inside boxes. Note. Mechanism of Addition Polymerization Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. They are also referred to as macromolecules. } The polymer that is made has this structure: Draw the polymer that results from the polymerization of the following monomers: Stephen Lower, Professor Emeritus (Simon Fraser U.) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A polymerization reaction that forms polymers via individual independent addition reactions. bags for intravenous solutions, pipes, tubing, floor coverings, Non-stick coating for cooking utensils, chemically-resistant specialty plastic parts, Gore-Tex, Stiff, clear, plastic sheets, blocks, tubing, and other shapes. The under­ standing of the relationship between the molecular structure, the kinetics of the process, and the performance characteristics of the product enables us to design better polymers with improved physical properties at reduced cost. Instead, we show the structure of its repeating unit, the part that is repeated many times. These reactions are catalyzed by peroxides or acids. The form this propagating center takes depends on the specific type of addition mechanism. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Very low molecular weights are obtained. Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. The monomers are of the same types; they join up to form a polymer. Addition polymers Alkenes. La polymérisation désigne la réaction chimique ou le procédé par lesquels des petites molécules (par exemple des hydrocarbures de deux à dix atomes de carbone) réagissent entre elles pour former des molécules de masses molaires plus élevées. Ring opening polymerization can occur without the loss of any small molecules. they have double or triple bonds. Other uses include textiles, many electronic appliance casings, CD's, automobile parts, and many others are made from polymers. Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This highly-crystalline fluorocarbon is exceptionally inert to chemicals and solvents. Addition polymerization involves the breaking of double or triple bonds, which are used to link monomers into chains. There are 4 types of addition polymerization reaction: Many polymers can be made by the addition of alkene monomers. Polymerization that occurs through the coupling of monomers using their multiple bonds is called addition polymerization. 2.5 Hydrocarbons (k) nature of addition polymerisation and the economic importance of the polymers of alkenes and substituted alkenes; GCSE Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The monomers used are mainly the unsaturated compounds. Injection moulding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest components to entire body panels of cars. by addition polymerization triggered by free radicals or ions or by con­ densation, coupling, ring-opening, or ring-closing reactions. Polystyrene is transparent but rather brittle, and yellows under uv light. People crippled by arthritis or injuries gain freedom of movement and relief from pain. An addition polymer is a polymer that forms by simple linking of monomers without the co-generation of other products. Propylene was first polymerized to a crystalline isotactic polymer by Giulio Natta as well as by the German chemist Karl Rehn in March 1954. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.[1]. Addition Polymerization: Polymerization in which no small molecule is produced in addition to the polymer chain. Poly(ethene) is a polymer made from a very large number of ethene molecules combined together. When a number of monomers undergo self-combination, resulting substance has a molecular mass many times larger than the monomer, the type of polymerization is known as “ Addition polymerization”. 1. Parce que des exemples de polymérisation d'addition sont difficiles à démontrer, ou pour les étudiants de s'expérience, cette expérience est importante soit comme une démonstration des enseignants ou comme une expérience de classe. By itself it is quite rigid and used in construction materials such as pipes, house siding, flooring. Les molécules initiales peuvent être des monomères ou des pré-polymères ; la synthèse conduit à des polymères. they have double or triple bonds. The hip is much like a ball-and-socket joint, and total hip replacements mimic this with a metal ball that fits in a plastic cup. This video is unavailable. In addition polymerization, the monomer molecules bond to each other without the loss of any other atoms. Introduction Monomers has to be two functionality for polymerization. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Emulsion polymerization is an important process for the production of a wide range of polymeric materials, including paints, adhesives and synthetic rubbers. Polyvinyl chloride (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔːraɪd/;[5] colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl[6]; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC was accidentally synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann.[11]. Poly(ethene) or polytheneis one of the most commonly used synthetic polymers. The Physical Object; Pagination: 352p. Voies, types et procédés de polymérisation. Polyvinyl chloride is one of the world's most widely used polymers. It is usually white and made of pre-expanded polystyrene beads. Addition of plasticizers make it soft and flexible for use in upholstery, electrical insulation, shower curtains and waterproof fabrics. Reaction Mechanism 1.Addition or Chain growth 1.1.Radical polymerization 1.2.Cationic polymerization 1.3.Anionic polymerization 2.Condensation or Step growth In both processes, π bonds are converted to σ bonds, and energy is liberated. Statement: J. Bartoň and I. Capek ; translation editor, T. J. Kemp. There is some effort being made to phase out this polymer owing to environmental concerns. The problem of heat transfer is compounded by the highly exothermic nature of free radical addition polymerization. When uncolored, it is translucent but not transparent. Addition Polymerization ; Condensation Polymerization; 3 Addition Polymerization The entire monomer molecule becomes part of the polymer . Watch Queue Queue In the case of this monomer, the double bond opens up and joins to other monomers, just as with ethylene. For example, Polymerization of ethane in the presence of Peroxides. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough, closed-cell foam with a normal density range of 11 to 32 kg/m3. max-width: 100vw; Once molding is completed excess Flash may be removed. Polymerization reactions proceed via either cationic or free‐radical mechanisms. It allows ethene molecules to join together to form a single, It is too difficult to model a complete addition polymer molecule, as it contains many. Transfer molding (BrE moulding) is a manufacturing process where casting material is forced into a mold. [1]:240 After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer, moulds are made by a mould-maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminium, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. This happens when there are unsaturated monomers, i.e. Types of Polymerization Reactions Addition Polymerization. These properties — non-adhesion to other materials, non-wetability, and very low coefficient of friction ("slipperyness") — have their origin in the highly electronegative nature of fluorine whose atoms partly shield the carbon chain. [1] Furthermore, unlike injection molding the transfer mold casting material may start the process as a solid. Polymers class 12 Notes Chemistry in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. [1] This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object. table.mt-responsive-table { Anna University Engineering Chemistry-1(CY6151) Notes Unit-1 Polymer Chemistry Addition Polymerisation Free radical mechanism Some polymers can be formed either by addition or condensation reactions. poly (ethene) is the polymer The C=C double bond in ethene is involved in the polymerisation reaction. Addition polymerization definition is - polymerization without formation of a by-product —distinguished from condensation polymerization. By the steady addition of large amounts of monomer, the very fast reaction is kept running. Synthetic polymers are an important part of a hip joint replacement. The artificial ball-and-socket hip joints are made of a special steel (the ball) and plastic (the socket). can be used to make polymers. made when many smaller molecules join together, end to end. Addition polymers are formed by the joining together of many monomers that contain C=C bonds. Whereas, in condensation polymerization (Section 10.5) two different monomers combine with the loss of a small molecule, usually water. Have questions or comments? Addition polymerization: This is the type of polymerization in which the molecules of a similar monomer or different monomer add up together on a large scale to form a polymer. Most polyesters and polyamides (nylon) are in this class of polymers. This happens when there are unsaturated monomers, i.e. Polymerization in the simplest form can be described as a chemical process that results in the formation of polymers. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) Advertisement of the Happy Pan, a Teflon-coated pan from the 1960s. EPS is colloquially called "styrofoam" in the United States and Canada, an incorrectly applied genericization of Dow Chemical's brand of extruded polystyrene. addition polymerization When a number of monomers undergo self-combination, resulting substance has a molecular mass many times larger than the monomer, the type of polymerization is known as “ Addition polymerization”. The reaction is performed within an aqueous environment where the monomer species is maintained within a single phase with a suitable surfactant or emulsifier. ; Number of Pages: 352: ID Numbers; Open Library: OL21138488M: ISBN 10: 013752353X The initiation of the polymerization takes place, depending on … In our study, such a feature was also observed. Polyaddition occurs as a reaction between functional groups on molecules with low degrees of polymerization, such as dimers, trimers and oligomers, to form species of higher molar mass. [CDATA[*/ We have seen one example of addition polymerization in the form of polyethene in alkenes In the polymerisation, the carbon–carbon π bond of the vinyl group is broken and a new carbon–carbon σ bond is formed, attaching to the carbon of another styrene monomer to the chain. This is also called as chain growth polymerization. Commonly extruded materials include metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, modelling clay, and foodstuffs. Typically, compression molding machines open along a vertical axis. Further, it is important to note that addition polymers can be formed through chain polymerization. Some common addition polymers are listed in Tables \(\PageIndex{1}\) and \(\PageIndex{2}\). The empirical formula of addition polymer and the monomer is same. By the steady addition of large amounts of monomer, the very fast reaction is kept running. Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications. After polyethylene, polypropylene is the most profitable plastic with revenues expected to exceed US$145 billion by 2019. An example of a cation‐initiated polymerization is the reaction of ethene with sulfuric acid. Wales. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. These are reactive molecules and are usually linked to each other by covalent bonds. 1. Gives One! addition polymerization - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Une polymérisation en chaîne est une polymérisation dans laquelle la croissance d'une chaîne polymère résulte exclusivement d'une ou plusieurs réactions entre monomère et site réactif de la chaîne polymère, avec régénération du ou des sites réactifs à la fin de chaque étape de croissance. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont, which originally discovered the compound in 1938. Watch Queue Queue. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials mainly including metals (for which the process is called die-casting), glasses, elastomers, confections, and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. These monomers add together to form a long chain to form a product with spe… In 1941, Dow Chemical invented a Styrofoam process. In addition polymerization, the monomers add to one another in such a way that the polymer contains all the atoms of the starting monomers. table-layout: auto; I.e. nCH 2 = CH 2 → − (CH 2CH 2)n − WJEC Chemistry. As with all polymerizations, chains having a range of molecular weights are produced, and this range can be altered by controlling the pressure and temperature of the process. /*

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